Luz Rasante

El Arco de Tito, Valadier y Stern.

Escrito por Iván el Miércoles, 3 de septiembre del 2008 a las 16:17

El Arco de Tito. Foro Romano. En la actualidad se siguen diferenciando claramente los laterales añadidos en la restauración de Valadier y Stern.El arco de Tito es uno de esos monumentos que es por sí mismo un símbolo de la antigua  Roma Imperial, situado en la Vía Sacra del Foro data  del 81 a.C. d.C. y su construcción conmemora las victorias de Tito y Vespasiano sobre los judíos y la entrada triunfal de las tropas romanas en Jerusalén.

Desde entonces el arco siempre ha permanecido en pie, como recordatorio del poder y las hazañas bélicas del Emperador Tito. Pero el tiempo  fue haciendo mella en él, sabemos que en siglo XVII se encontraba en un estado ruinoso, tan solo se conservaba el arco central con los relieves dañados, pues sobre ellos se Grabado de Piranesi en el que se aprecia el estado del arco de Tito antes de la restauración.ancló un portón para cerrar la muralla.

No deja de ser curioso que un arco que nació para ser conmemorativo, con el paso de los siglos llegó a servir como auténtica puerta, ya que se integró en la muralla medieval de Roma. Así es como aparece en los maravillosos grabados de Giovan Battista Piranesi o en varios lienzos como el de Juan Bautista  Martínez del Mazo conservado en el museo del Prado o el de Bernardo Bellotto que se encuentra en la Galería de la Academia de Carrara .

Por suerte para el arco, en los primeros años del siglo XIX, Roma vive un clima de renovación y de interés por el pasado clásico, que tiene como principal promotor al papa Pío VII,  y el arco se convierte en un objeto de gran atracción para estudiosos y arqueólogos. Este ambiente neoclásico era el caldo de cultivo ideal que propició las primeras restauraciones del monumento.

Desde 1818 a 1821 se encargarán de la restauración del arco de Tito Raffaele Stern y Giuseppe Valadier, un hito que se considera el acto fundacional de la restauración moderna.

 Su idea fue recuperar la estructura original del monumento, para esto reconstruyen los laterales faltantes, pero en vez de utilizar el tipo de piedra en que está construido el arco-mármol del Pentélicoemplean travertino. Además en las partes faltantes las nuevas piezas se labran con formas simplificadas, por lo que se trata de una reintegración fácilmente perceptible, pero que permite una correcta lectura de la obra. La ejecución de las obras se prolongó durante cuatro años y fue necesaria la colocación de una cimbra de madera bajo el arco para desmontarlo entero, numerando las piezas para volverlo a montar y solucionar los problemas estructurales que presentaba.

Aunque esta restauración es tenida aún hoy como ejemplar, se seguía citando en el Anexo A.13 de la Carta del Restauro de 1972 , hay quien apunta, como el arquitecto romano P.Marconi, que la forma de restaurar el arco de Tito no es tanto el resultado de una elección previa de criterios como de una carencia de medios económicos que obliga a utilizar un material más barato y un nivel de acabado menos elaborado.

Sea como sea, el hecho es que la restauración del arco de Tito marcó un modo de hacer y ha pasado a la historia, o por lo menos, a la historia de la restauración.

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Categoria: Arquitectura,Historia de la restauración,Restauración

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¿Qué es luz rasante?

La luz rasante es un sencillo método de examen para el análisis de las obras de arte. Es tan simple como situar un foco de luz de manera que ilumine la obra desde un ángulo lateral casi en paralelo con su superficie. Gracias a la luz rasante es posible apreciar detalles de la pieza que a simple vista pasaban desapercibidos. Algo parecido es lo que propone este blog. Poner de relieve y analizar de una forma sencilla temas relacionados con el arte el patrimonio, su conservación y su restauración.